Nephi, Wisdom, and the Deuteronomist Reform
Nephi, Wisdom, and the Deuteronomist Reform
By Kevin Christensen
Biblical scholar Margaret Barker has argued that Judaism was reformed initially
in response to the discovery of the “book of the law” (2 Kings 22: 8; 2 Chronicles
34:14) in King Josiah’s time (reigned 640-609 B.C.) and later in response to the
destruction of the Israelite monarchy and the experience of the exile. Those reforms
were carried out by a priestly group known to scholars as the Deuteronomists,
credited with editing the books of Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings
(to celebrate Josiah and to address aspects of later Jewish history) and leaving
a distinct imprint on the Hebrew Bible.
Barker summarizes their efforts:
The reform of Josiah/the
Deuteronomists, then, reconstructed
as best we can from
both biblical and non-biblical
sources, seems to have been a
time when more than pagan
accretions were removed from
the Jerusalem cult. Wisdom
was eliminated, even though
her presence was never forgotten,
the heavenly ascent and
the vision of God were abandoned,
the hosts of heaven,
the angels, were declared to
be unfit for the chosen people,
the ark (and the presence of
Yahweh which it represented)
was removed, and the role
of the high priest was altered
in that he was no longer the
anointed. All of these features
of the older cult were to appear
As might be expected, the Book of Mormon prophets show many affinities with
the traditions of the First Temple period (1006-586 B.C.) that Barker reconstructs.
Moreover, the Book of Mormon appropriately diverges from the later reform efforts
that took place during the Babylonian exile of the Jews, when Lehi’s group was
already in the New World. This report will highlight how the teachings and activities
of Nephi preserve aspects of the preexilic Hebrew wisdom tradition. (A subsequent
study will extend this idea to include temple themes in the teachings of Nephi’s
The Book of Mormon account, which begins about 10 years after Josiah’s death
and thus understandably reflects positive aspects of the initial reforms in
the attention given to Moses and to exodus themes,2 also reflects the wisdom
tradition that was prevalent in preexilic Israel but lost through later Deuteronomist
reforms.3 Barker writes:
First, they [the Deuteronomists] were to have the Law
instead of Wisdom (Deut. 4.6). . . . What was the Wisdom which the Law replaced?
Second, they were to think only of the formless voice of God sounding from the
fire and giving the Law (Deut. 4.12). Israel had long had a belief in the vision
of God, when the glory had been visible on the throne in human form, surrounded
by the heavenly hosts. What happened to the visions of God?4
Her primary guide
for reconstructing the lost wisdom tradition is the pseudepigraphic Book of
Enoch, which originated in Jewish tradition and was later used by the earliest
Christians. Wisdom themes also preserved in the Book of Mormon have been discussed
by LDS scholars Hugh Nibley and Daniel C. Peterson.5
Barker’s work illuminates the ancient wisdom themes further. Referring to the
book of Daniel, Barker notes that “the text itself claims to be about a wise
man who predicts the future, interprets dreams and functions at court.”
6 She adds that
Joseph, our only
other canonical model [of a wise man], is very similar; he functions at court,
interprets dreams and predicts the future. . . . How are we to explain his dealings
with heavenly beings, and his use of an inexplicable mythology? . . . This suggests
that the wisdom elements in the noncanonical apocalypses which have no obvious
roots in the Old Testament may not be foreign accretions, but elements of an
older wisdom which the reformers have purged.7
Nephi resembles the prototypical
wise men Joseph and Daniel in several respects. He accepts a kingly role (2
Nephi 5:18) and interprets dreams as well as predicts the future (1 Nephi 11-15).
Like Daniel, he shows commitment to the law of Moses (1 Nephi 4:14-17; 2 Nephi
5:10), communes with angels (1 Nephi 3:29-30; 11:21, 30; 12:1; 2 Nephi 4:24),
seeks divine interpretation of symbols (1 Nephi 11:9-11), and values the cultural
context behind prophetic writing (2 Nephi 25:1-5).
Searching the brass plates, Lehi discovers his descent from Joseph (1 Nephi
5:14-16). Not surprisingly, the Book of Mormon preserves Joseph traditions that
did not survive in the transmission of the Bible (2 Nephi 3; Alma 46:23-27).
Barker identifies many other details of Israel’s lost or suppressed wisdom tradition
that illuminate Nephi’s activities. For example, “The wise man has knowledge
of God, is a child/servant of the Lord . . . and, as God’s son, will receive
Further: Another of the angelic arts was metal-working, and we find
wisdom attributed to a variety of craftsmen in the Old Testament. . . . 1 En[och]
8 links this skill to the arts of war, and in Isaiah 10.13 we do find that the
king of Assyria’s military prowess is called wisdom. Job 28 implies that wisdom
extended to the techniques of mining, damming and irrigation. Ezekiel 27.8-9
says that the navigators and shipwrights were also wise.9
Consistent with the wisdom tradition of ancient Israel, Nephi is a king, a
dreamer, an interpreter of apocalyptic visions, and a “forth-teller”
who prophesies of great judgment to come (1 Nephi 11:36; 22:12-19), claims knowledge
of God’s mysteries (1 Nephi 1:1; 2 Nephi 4:23-25), and knows of both the heavenly
hosts of angels and the fallen ones (1 Nephi 1:8-10; 11:30-31; 2 Nephi 2:17).
Adding to his stature as a quintessential man of wisdom, Nephi demonstrates
knowledge of writing (1 Nephi 1:2) and possesses appropriate wisdom in relation
to mining and metalworking (1 Nephi 17:9-10), shipbuilding (1 Nephi 17:8-9;
18:1-8), navigation (1 Nephi 18: 12-13, 22-23), and the arts of war (2 Nephi
5:14, 34). In sum, Nephi qualifies remarkably well as a representative of Israel’s
lost wisdom tradition that Barker so ably reconstructs.
- Margaret Barker, The Great Angel: A Study of Israel’s Second God (Louisville,
Ky.: Westminster/ John Knox, 1992), 15. See her book The Revelation of Jesus
Christ (Edinburgh: Clark, 2000), 16-17.
- See my study “Paradigms Regained: A Survey of Margaret Barker’s Scholarship
and Its Significance for Mormon Studies,” FARMS Occasional Papers, no.
2 (Provo, Utah: FARMS, 2001) 16-21.
- See Margaret Barker, The Older Testament:
The Survival of Themes from the Ancient Royal Cult in Sectarian Judaism and
Early Christianity (London: SPCK, 1987), 83.
- Barker, Great Angel, 13. I
corrected the second reference to Deuteronomy 4:12.
- See Hugh Nibley, The Prophetic Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book
and FARMS, 1989), 551; and Daniel C. Peterson, “Nephi and His Asherah:
A Note on 1 Nephi 11:8-23,” in Mormons, Scripture, and the Ancient World:
Studies in Honor of John L. Sorenson, ed. Davis Bitton (Provo, Utah: FARMS,
1998), especially pp. 209-18.
- Barker, Older Testament, 91; emphasis in original.
- Ibid., 91-92.
- Ibid., 92.
- Ibid., 95. By Kevin Christensen Resembling the prototypical wise men Joseph
and Daniel, Nephi qualifies remarkably well as a representative of Israel’s
lost wisdom tradition.