Leaders to Managers:
The Fatal Shift

Chapter 18

Leaders to Managers: The Fatal Shift*

years ago today, if you will cast your minds back, on this same occasion I
gave the opening prayer in which I said: “We have met here today clothed
in the black robes of a false priesthood . . . ” Many have asked me since
whether I really said such a shocking thing, but nobody has ever asked what
I meant by it. Why not? Well, some knew the answer already; and as for the
rest, we do not question things at “the BYU.” But for my own relief,
I welcome this opportunity to explain.

Why a
priesthood? Because these robes originally
denoted those who had taken clerical orders; and a college was a “mystery,”
with all the rites, secrets, oaths, degrees, tests, feasts, and solemnities
that go with initiation into higher knowledge.

But why
false? Because it is borrowed finery,
coming down to us through a long line of unauthorized imitators. It was not
until 1893 that “an intercollegiate commission was formed . . . to draft
a uniform code for caps, gowns, and hoods” in the United States.1 Before that there were no rules. You
could design your own; and that liberty goes as far back as these fixings
can be traced. The late Roman emperors, as we learn from the infallible DuCange,
marked each step in the decline of their power and glory by the addition of
some new ornament to the resplendent vestments that proclaimed their sacred
office and dominion. Branching off from them, the kings of the tribes who
inherited the lands and the claims of the empire vied with each other in imitating
the Roman masters, determined to surpass even them in the theatrical variety
and richness of caps and gowns.

One of
the four crowns worn by the Emperor was the mortarboard. The French kings
got it from Charlemagne, the model and founder of their royal lines. To quote

     When the French kings quitted the palace at Paris to erect a Temple of Justice,
at the same time they conferred their royal adornments on those who would
preside therein, so that the judgments that came from their mouths would have
more weight and authority with the people, as if they were coming from the
mouth of the Prince himself. [That’s the idea of the robe of the prophet,
descending on his successor.] It is to these connections that the mortarboards
and the scarlet and ermine robes of the Chancellors of France and the Presidents
of Parlement are to be traced. Their gowns or epitogia [the loose robe
thrown over the rest of the clothing, to produce the well-known greenhouse
effect] are still made in the ancient fashion. . . . The name “mortarboard”
is given to the diadem because it is shaped like the mortarboard which serves
for mixing plaster, and is bigger on top than on the bottom.2

But where
did the Roman emperors get it? For one thing, the mortarboard was called a
Justinianeion, because of its use by
the Emperor Justinian, who introduced it from the East. He got his court trappings
and his protocol from the monarchs of Asia, in particular the Grand Shah,
from whom it can be traced to the khans of the steppes and the Mongol emperors,
who wore the golden button of all wisdom on the top of the cap even as I do
now. The shamans of the North also had it, and among the Laplanders it is
still called “the Cap of the Four Winds.” The four-square headpiece
topped by the golden tassel—the emergent Flame of Full Enlightenment—also
figures in some Buddhist and Lamaist representations. But you get the idea:
this Prospero suit is pretty strong medicine—”rough magic”

type of robe and headdress is described in Exodus and Leviticus and the third
book of Josephus’s Antiquities, i.e.,
the white robe and linen cap of the Hebrew priesthood, which have close resemblance
to some Egyptian vestments.4
They were given up entirely, however, with the passing of the temple and were
never even imitated after that by the Jews. Both their basic white and their
peculiar design, especially as shown in the latest studies from Israel, are
much like our own temple garments. This is not the time nor the place to pursue
a subject in which Brother Packer wisely recommends a judicious restraint.
I bring it up only to ask myself, “What if I appeared for an endowment
session in the temple dressed in this outfit I’m wearing now?” There
would be something incongruous about it, perhaps even comical. But why should
that be so? The original idea behind both garments is the same—to provide
a clothing more fitting to another ambience, action, and frame of mind than
that of the warehouse, office, or farm. Doctrine and Covenants 109 describes
the function and purpose of the temple as much the same as those of a university:
A house where all seek learning by study and faith, by a discriminating search
among the best books (no official list is given—you must search them
out), and by constant discussion—diligently teaching “one
words of wisdom”; everybody
seeking greater light and knowledge as all things come to be “gathered
in one”—hence university
(D&C 109:7, 14; 42:36).

Both the
black and the white robes proclaim a primary concern for things of the mind
and the spirit, sobriety of life, and concentration of purpose removed from
the largely mindless, mechanical routines of your everyday world. Cap and
gown announced that the wearer had accepted certain rules of living and been
tested in special kinds of knowledge.

What is
wrong, then, with the flowing robes? For one thing, they are somewhat theatrical
and too easily incline the wearer, beguiled by their splendor, to masquerade
and affectation. In the time of Socrates, the Sophists were making a big thing
of their special manner of dress and delivery.5 It was all for show, of course, but it was “dressing
for success” with a vengeance, for the whole purpose of the rhetorical
brand of education which they inaugurated and sold at top prices to the ambitious
youth was to make the student successful as a paid advocate in the law courts,
a commanding figure in the public assemblies, or a successful promoter of
daring business enterprises by mastering those then irresistible techniques
of persuasion and salesmanship which the Sophists had to offer.

That was
the classical education which Christianity embraced at the urging of the great
St. Augustine. He had learned by hard experience that you can’t trust revelation
because you can’t control it—the Spirit bloweth where it listeth
(John 3:8); and what the church needed
was something more available and reliable than that, something commodior
et multitudini tutior
(“handier and
more reliable for the public”) than revelation or even reason, and that
is exactly what the rhetorical education had to offer.

At the
beginning of this century, scholars were strenuously debating the momentous
transition from Geist to Amt, from spirit to office, from inspiration to ceremony
in the leadership of the early church, when the inspired leader, Peter, was
replaced by the typical city bishop, an appointed and elected official—ambitious,
jealous, calculating, power-seeking, authoritarian, an able politician, and
a master of public relations. We have an immense literature on this in the
Patrologia. This was St. Augustine’s
trained rhetorician. At the same time, the charismatic gifts (the gifts of
the Spirit), not to be trusted, were replaced by rites and ceremonies that
could be timed and controlled, all following the Roman Imperial model, as
Alföldi has shown, including the caps and gowns.6

And down
through the centuries the robes have never failed to keep the public at a
respectful distance, inspire a decent awe for the professions, and impart
an air of solemnity and mystery that has been as good as money in the bank.
The four faculties of theology, philosophy, medicine, and law have been the
perennial seedbeds, not only of professional wisdom, but of the quackery and
venality so generously exposed to public view by Plato, Rabelais, Molière,
Swift, Gibbon, A. E. Housman, H. L. Mencken, and others. What took place in
the Greco-Roman as in the Christian world was that fatal shift from leadership
to management that marks the decline and fall of civilizations.

At the
present time, that grand old lady of the Navy, Captain Grace Hopper (the oldest
commissioned officer in the Navy), is calling our attention to the contrasting
and conflicting natures of management and leadership. No one, she says, ever
managed men into battle. She wants more emphasis in teaching leadership. But
leadership can no more be taught than creativity or how to be a genius. The
Generalstab tried desperately for a
hundred years to train up a generation of leaders for the German army; but
it never worked, because the men who delighted their superiors, i.e., the
managers, got the high commands, while the men who delighted the lower ranks,
i.e., the leaders, got reprimands.

are movers and shakers, original, inventive, unpredictable, imaginative, full
of surprises that discomfit the enemy in war and the main office in peace.
For the managers are safe, conservative, predictable, conforming organization
men and team players, dedicated to the establishment.

The leader,
for example, has a passion for equality. We think of great generals from David
and Alexander on down, sharing their beans or maza with their men, calling them by their first names,
marching along with them in the heat, sleeping on the ground, and being first
over the wall. A famous ode by a long-suffering Greek soldier, Archilochus,
reminds us that the men in the ranks are not fooled for an instant by the
executive type who thinks he is a leader.7

For the
manager, on the other hand, the idea of equality is repugnant and even counterproductive.
Where promotion, perks, privilege, and power are the name of the game, awe
and reverence for rank is everything, the inspiration and motivation of all
good men. Where would management be without the inflexible paper processing,
dress standards, attention to proper social, political, and religious affiliation,
vigilant watch over habits and attitudes, that gratify the stockholders and
satisfy security?

you love me,” said the greatest of all leaders, “you will keep my
commandments. “If you know what is good for you,” says the manager,
“you will keep my commandments
and not make waves.” That is why the rise of management always marks
the decline, alas, of culture. If the management does not go for Bach, very
well, there will be no Bach in the meeting. If the management favors vile
sentimental doggerel verse extolling the qualities that make for success,
young people everywhere will be spouting long trade-journal jingles from the
stand. If the management’s taste in art is what will sell—trite, insipid,
folksy kitsch—that is what we will get. If management finds maudlin,
saccharine commercials appealing, that is what the public will get. If management
must reflect the corporate image in tasteless, trendy new buildings, down
come the fine old pioneer monuments.

To Parkinson’s
Law, which shows how management gobbles up everything else, he added what
he calls the “Law of Injelitance”: Managers do not promote individuals
whose competence might threaten their own position; and so as the power of
management spreads ever wider, the quality deteriorates (if that is possible).
In short, while management shuns equality, it feeds on mediocrity.

On the
other hand, leadership is an escape from mediocrity. All the great deposits
of art, science, and literature from the past, on which all civilization has
been nourished, come to us from a mere handful of leaders. For the qualities
of leadership are the same in all fields, the leader being simply the one
who sets the highest example; and to do that and open the way to greater light
and knowledge, the leader must break the mold. “A ship in port is safe,”
says Captain Hopper speaking of management, “but that is not what ships
were built for,” she says, calling for leadership.

To quote
one of the greatest of leaders, the founder of this institution, “There
is too much of a sameness in this community. . . . I am not
a stereotyped Latter-day Saint and do not believe in the doctrine . . .
away with stereotyped ‘Mormons’!”8 Good-bye all. True leaders are inspiring because they are
inspired, caught up in a higher purpose, devoid of personal ambition, idealistic,
and incorruptible.

is necessarily some of the manager in every leader (what better example than
Brigham Young himself?), as there should be some of the leader in every manager.
Speaking in the temple to the temple management, the scribes and pharisees
all in their official robes, the Lord chided them for one-sidedness: They
kept careful accounts of the most trivial sums brought into the temple; but
in their dealings they neglected fair play, compassion, and good faith, which
happen to be the prime qualities of leadership.

The Lord
insisted that both states of mind are necessary, and that is important: “These
ought ye to have done [speaking of the bookkeeping], and not to leave the
other undone.” But it is the blind leading the blind, he continues, who
reverse priorities, who “strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel”
(Matthew 23:23–24). So vast is the discrepancy between management and
leadership that only a blind man would get them backwards. Yet that is what
we do. In that same chapter of Matthew, the Lord tells the same men that they
do not really take the temple seriously, while the business contracts registered
in the temple they do take very seriously indeed (Matthew 23:16–18).
I am told of a meeting of very big businessmen in a distant place, who happened
also to be the heads of stakes, where they addressed the problem of “How
to stay awake in the temple.” For them what is done in the house of the
Lord is a mere quota-filling until they can get back to the real work of the

abounds in dramatic confrontations between the two types, but none is more
stirring than the epic story of the collision between Moroni and Amalickiah,
the one the most charismatic leader, the other the most skillful manager,
in the Book of Mormon. This is both timely and relevant—that’s why I
bring it in here. We are often reminded that Moroni “did not delight
in the shedding of blood” and would do anything to avoid it, repeatedly
urging his people to make covenants of peace and to preserve them by faith
and prayer. He refused to talk about “the enemy.” For him they were
always “our brethren,” misled by the traditions of their fathers.
He fought them only with heavy reluctance, and he never invaded their lands, even when they threatened intimate [imminent?] invasion of his
own. He never felt threatened, since he trusted absolutely in the Lord. At
the slightest sign of weakening by an enemy in battle, Moroni would instantly
propose a discussion to put an end to the fighting. The idea of total victory
was alien to him—no revenge, no punishment, no reprisals, no reparations,
even for an aggressor who had ravaged his country. He would send the beaten
enemy home after battle, accepting their word for good behavior or inviting
them to settle on Nephite lands, even when he knew he was taking a risk. Even
his countrymen who fought against him lost their lives only while opposing
him on the field of battle. There were no firing-squads, and former conspirators
and traitors had only to agree to support his popular army to be reinstated.
With Alma, he insisted that conscientious objectors keep their oaths and not
go to war even when he desperately needed their help. Always concerned to
do the decent thing, he would never take what he called an unfair advantage
of an enemy. Devoid of personal ambition, the moment the war was over he “yielded
up the command of his armies . . . and he retired to his own house . . . in
peace” (Alma 62:43), though as the national hero he could have had any
office or honor. For his motto was, “I seek not for power” (Alma
60:36), and as to rank he thought of himself only as one of the despised and
outcast of Israel. If all this sounds a bit too idealistic, may I remind you
that there really have been such men in history, hard as that is to imagine

all, Moroni was the charismatic leader, personally going about to rally the
people, who came running together spontaneously to his title of liberty, the
banner of the poor and downtrodden of Israel (Alma 46:12, 19–21). He
had little patience with management. He let himself get carried away and wrote
tactless and angry letters to the big men sitting on their “thrones in
a state of thoughtless stupor” back in the capital (Alma 60:7). And when
it was necessary he bypassed the whole system, and “altered the management of affairs among the Nephites,” to counter Amalickiah’s
own managerial skill (Alma 49:11). Yet he could apologize handsomely when
he learned that he had been wrong, led by his generous impulses into an exaggerated
contempt for management; and he gladly shared with Pahoran the glory of the
final victory, one thing that ambitious generals jealously reserve for themselves.

But if
Moroni hated war so much, why was he such a dedicated general? He leaves us
in no doubt on that head—he took up the sword only as a last resort.
“I seek not for power, but to pull it down” (Alma 60:36). He was
determined to “pull down [the] pride and . . . nobility” (Alma 51:18)
of those groups who were trying to take things over. The “Lamanite brethren”
he fought were the reluctant auxiliaries of Zoramites and Amalickiahites,
his own countrymen. They “grew proud . . . because of their exceedingly
great riches,” and sought to seize power for themselves (Alma 45:24),
enlisting the aid of “those who were in favor of kings . . . those of
high birth . . . supported by those who sought power and authority over the
people” (Alma 51:8). They were further joined by important “judges
[who] had many friends and kindreds” (the right connections were everything)
plus “almost all the lawyers and the high priests,” to which were
added “the lower judges of the land, and they were seeking for power”
(3 Nephi 6:27; Alma 46:4).

All these
Amalickiah welded together with immense managerial skill to form a single
ultraconservative coalition who agreed to “support him and establish
him to be their king,” expecting that “he would make them rulers
over the people” (Alma 46:5). Many in the church were won over by Amalickiah’s
skillful oratory, for he was a charming (“flattering” is the word
used by the Book of Mormon) and persuasive communicator. He made war the cornerstone
of his policy and power, using a systematic and carefully planned communications
system of towers and trained speakers to stir up the people to fight for their
rights, meaning Amalickiah’s career. For while Moroni had kind feelings for
the enemy, Amalickiah “did care not for the blood of his [own] people”
(Alma 49:10). His object in life was to become king of both the Nephites and
Lamanites, using the one to subdue the other (Alma 46:4–5). He was a master
of dirty tricks, to which he owed some of his most brilliant achievements
as he maintained his upward mobility by clever murders, high-powered public
relations, and great executive ability. His competitive spirit was such that
he swore to drink the blood of Alma, who stood in his way. In short, he was
“one very wicked man” (Alma 46:9), who stood for everything that
Moroni loathed.

It is
at this time in Book of Mormon history that the word management makes its only appearances (three of them) in all the
scriptures. First there was that time when Moroni on his own “altered
the management of affairs among
the Nephites” (Alma 49:11) during a crisis. Then there was Korihor, the
ideological spokesman for the Zoramites and Amalickiahites, who preached that
“every man fared in this life according to the management of the creature; therefore every man prospered according
to his genius [ability, talent, brains, etc.], and . . . conquered according
to his strength; and whatsoever a man did was no crime” (Alma 30:17).
He raged against the government for taking people’s property, that “they
durst not enjoy their rights and privileges, Yea they durst not make use of
that which [was] their own” (Alma 30:27–28). Finally, as soon as
Moroni disappeared from the scene, the old coalition “did obtain the
sole management of the government,”
and immediately did “turn their backs upon the poor” (Helaman 6:39),
while they appointed judges to the bench who displayed the spirit of cooperation
by “letting the guilty and the wicked go unpunished because of their
money” (Helaman 7:5). (All this took place in Central America. the perennial
arena of the Big People versus the Little People.)

Such was
the management that Moroni opposed. By all means, brethren, let us take Captain
Moroni for our model, and never forget what he fought for—the poor,
the outcast, and the despised; and what he fought against—pride, power,
wealth, and ambition; or how he fought—as
the generous, considerate, and magnanimous foe, a leader in every sense.

At the
risk of running overtime, I must pause and remind you that this story of which
I have given just a few small excerpts is supposed to have been cooked up
back in the 1820s and somewhere in the backwoods by some abysmally ignorant,
disgustingly lazy, and shockingly unprincipled hayseed. Aside from a light
mitigation of those epithets, that is the only alternative to believing that
the story is true; for the situation
is equally fantastic no matter what kind of author you choose to invent. This
must be a true story.

That Joseph
Smith is beyond compare the greatest leader of modern times is a proposition
that needs no comment. Brigham Young recalled that many of the brethren considered
themselves better managers than Joseph and were often upset by his economic
naiveté. Brigham was certainly a better manager than the Prophet (or anybody
else, for that matter), and he knew it; yet he always deferred to and unfailingly
followed Brother Joseph all the way while urging others to do the same, because
he knew only too well how small is the wisdom of men compared with the wisdom
of God.

scolded the management for their “love of glory and the vain things of
the world” (Alma 60:32), and we
have been warned against the things of this world as recently as the last
general conference.9 But exactly what are the things of
the world? An easy and infallible test has been given us in the well-known
maxim, “You can have anything in this world for money” If a thing
is of this world you can have it for money; if you cannot have it for money,
it does not belong to this world. That is what makes the whole thing manageable—money
is pure number. By converting all values to numbers, everything can be fed
into the computer and handled with ease and efficiency. “How much?”
becomes the only question we need to ask. The manager “knows the price
of everything and the value of nothing,” because for him the value is
the price.

Look around
you here. Do you see anything that cannot be had for money? Is there anything
here you couldn’t have if you were rich enough? Well, for one thing you may
think you detect intelligence, integrity, sobriety, zeal, character, and other
such noble qualities. Don’t the caps and gowns prove that? But hold on! I
have always been taught that those are the very things that managers are looking
for. They bring top prices in the marketplace.

Does their
value in this world mean, then, that they have no value in the other world?
It means exactly that. Such things have no price and command no salary in
Zion; you cannot bargain with them because they are as common as the once-pure
air around us; they are not negotiable in the kingdom because there everybody
possesses all of them in full measure, and it would make as much sense to
demand pay for having bones or skin as it would to collect a bonus for honesty
or sobriety. It is only in our world that they are valued for their scarcity.
“Thy money perish with thee,” said Peter to a gowned quack (Simon
Magus) who sought to include “the gift of God” in a business transaction
(Acts 8:20).

The group
leader of my high priests’ quorum is a solid and stalwart Latter-day Saint
who was recently visited by a young returned missionary who came to sell him
some insurance. Cashing in on his training in the mission field, the fellow
assured the brother that he knew that he had the right policy for him just
as he knew the gospel was true. Whereupon my friend, without further ado,
ordered him out of the house, for one with a testimony should hold it sacred
and not sell it for money. The early Christians called Christemporoi those who made merchandise of spiritual gifts or church
connections. The things of the world and the things of eternity cannot be
thus conveniently conjoined; and it is because many people are finding this
out today that I am constrained at this time to speak on this unpopular theme.

For the
past year I have been assailed by a steady stream of visitors, phone calls,
and letters from people agonizing over what might be called a change of majors.
Heretofore the trouble has been the repugnance that the student (usually a
graduate) has felt at entering one line of work while he would greatly prefer
another. But what can they do? “If you leave my employ,” says the
manager, “what will become of you?” But today it is not boredom
or disillusionment, but conscience that raises the problem. To seek ye first
financial independence and all other things shall be added, is recognized
as a rank perversion of the scriptures and an immoral inversion of values.

To question
that sovereign maxim, one need only consider what strenuous efforts of wit,
will, and imagination have been required to defend it. I have never heard,
for example, of artists, astronomers, naturalists, poets, athletes, musicians,
scholars, or even politicians coming together in high-priced institutes, therapy
groups, lecture series, outreach programs, or clinics to get themselves psyched
up by GO! GO! GO! slogans, moralizing clichés, or the spiritual exercises
of a careful dialectic, to give themselves what is called a “wealth mindset”
with the assurance that (in the words of Korihor) “whatsoever a man did
was no crime” (Alma 30:17). Nor do those ancient disciplines lean upon
lawyers, those managers of managers, to prove to the world that they are not
cheating. Those who have something to give to humanity revel in their work,
and do not have to rationalize, advertise, or evangelize to make themselves
feel good about what they are doing. It is only when their art and their science
become business oriented that problems of ethics ever arise. Look at TV. Behind
the dirty work is always money. There would be no crime on Hill Street if
people didn’t have to have money. Paul was absolutely right: The drive for
money is “the root of all evil” (1 Timothy 6:10); and he’s quoting,
incidentally, the old book of Enoch.

In my
latest class, a graduating honors student in business management (who is here
today) wrote this—the assignment was to compare one’s self with some
character in the Pearl of Great Price, and he quite seriously chose Cain:

     Many times I wonder if many of my desires are too self-centered. Cain was
after personal gain. He knew the impact of his decision to kill Abel. Now,
I do not ignore God and make murderous pacts with Satan; however, I desire
to get gain. Unfortunately, my desire to succeed in business is not necessarily
to help the Lord’s kingdom grow [now there’s a refreshing bit of honesty].
Maybe I am pessimistic, but I feel that few businessmen have actually dedicated
themselves to the furthering of the Church without first desiring personal
gratification. As a business major, I wonder about the ethics of business—”charge
as much as possible for a product which was made by someone else who was paid
as little as possible.” You live on the difference. As a businessman
will I be living on someone else’s industry and not my own? Will I be contributing
to society or will I receive something for nothing, as did Cain? While being
honest, these are difficult questions for me.

They have
been made difficult by the rhetoric of our times. The Church was full of men
in Paul’s day teaching that gain is godliness and making others believe it.
Today the black robe puts the official stamp of approval on that very proposition.
But don’t blame the College of Commerce! The Sophists, those shrewd business-
and showmen, started that game 2,500 years ago, and you can’t blame others
for wanting to get in on something so profitable. The learned doctors and
masters have always known which side their bread was buttered on and have
taken their place in the line. Business and “Independent Studies,”
the latest of the late-comers, have filled the last gaps; and today, no matter
what your bag, you can put in for a cap and gown. And be not alarmed that
management is running the show—they always have.

Most of
you are here today only because you believe that this charade will help you
get ahead in the world. But in the last few years things have got out of hand.
The economy, once the most important thing in our materialistic lives, has
become the only thing. We have been
swept up in a total dedication to the economy which, like the massive mudslides
of our Wasatch Front, is rapidly engulfing and suffocating everything. If
President Kimball is “frightened and appalled” by what he sees,
I can do no better than to conclude with his words: “We must leave off
the worship of modern-day idols and a reliance on the ‘arm of flesh,’ for
the Lord has said to all the world in our day, ‘I will not spare any that
remain in Babylon’ (D&C 64:24).”10 And
Babylon is where we are.

In a forgotten
time, before the Spirit was exchanged for the office and inspired leadership
for ambitious management, these robes were designed to represent withdrawal
from the things of this world—as the temple robes still do. That we
may become more fully aware of the real significance of both is my prayer.

*   This speech was delivered at the Brigham
Young University commencement ceremony on 19 August 1983 after Nibley had received
an honorary doctor of letters degree; it was published as “Leaders to Managers:
The Fatal Shift,” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 16/4 (Winter
1983): 12–21.

Encyclopedia Americana
, International
Edition, 30 vols. (New York: Americana,1965), 8:49.

D. P. Carpenter, “Des Couronnes des rois de France,” Dissertation
24 of Dissertations ou réflexions sur l’histoire de Saint Louys,
in Charles du Fresne DuCange, Glossarium Mediae et Infimae Latinitatis,
10 vols. (Paris: Didot, 1840–50; reprinted Graz: Akademische Druck-
und Verlagsanstalt, 1954), 10:83; cf. essays on crowns in the supplement.

William Shakespeare, The Tempest,
act V, scene i, line 57.

Cf. Exodus 28:4; 39:1–31; Leviticus 8:7–9; and Josephus, Antiquities III, 7, 1–7.

Plato, Protagoras 309a–d.

András Alföldi, A Conflict of Ideas in the Late Roman Empire, tr. Harold Mattingly (Oxford, Clarendon: 1952).

Archilocus, frag. 58.

13:153, 55.

9.   For example, see Thomas S. Monson,
“Anonymous,” Ensign 13 (May 1983): 55–57.

10.   Spencer W. Kimball,
“The False Gods We Worship,” Ensign 6 (June 1976): 4, 6.