5. Do Latter-day Saints believe that men and women can become gods?

5. Do Latter-day Saints believe that men and women can become gods?

of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that human beings
can grow and progress spiritually until, through the mercy and grace of Christ,
they can inherit and possess all that the Father has—they can become
gods. This is taught in revelations given to modern prophets (see D&C
76:58; 132:19—20), as well as in sermons delivered by Joseph Smith.9
A couplet written by Lorenzo Snow, fifth president of the LDS Church, states:

As man now is, God once was;
As God now is, man may be.10

This doctrine is generally referred to as deification, and the LDS expression
of this doctrine is often misrepresented and misunderstood. Latter-day Saints
do not believe that human beings will ever be independent of God, or that they
will ever cease to be subordinate to God. They believe that to become as God
means to overcome the world through the atonement of Jesus Christ (see 1 John
5:4—5; Revelation 2:7, 11). Thus the faithful become heirs of God and
joint heirs with Christ and will inherit all things just as Christ inherits
all things (see Romans 8:17; Galatians 4:7; 1 Corinthians 3:21—23; Revelation
21:7). They are received into the "church of the firstborn," meaning
they inherit as though they were the firstborn (see Hebrews 12:23). There are
no limitations on these scriptural declarations; those who become as God shall
inherit all things. In that glorified state they will resemble our Savior;
they will receive his glory and be one with him and with the Father (see 1 John
3:2; 1 Corinthians 15:49; 2 Corinthians 3:18; John 17:21—23; Philippians

Ancient Doctrine

The doctrine of the deification of man is not an exclusive
teaching of the restored Church of Jesus Christ. Rather, it can be found in
early Christian history. In the second century, Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons
(about A.D. 130—200), the
most important Christian theologian of his time, said much the same thing
as Lorenzo Snow:

If the Word became a man,
It was so men may become gods.11

Irenaeus asked:

Do we cast blame on him [God] because we were not made gods from the beginning,
but were at first created merely as men, and then later as gods? Although
God has adopted this course out of his pure benevolence, that no one may charge
him with discrimination or stinginess, he declares, "I have said, Ye
are gods; and all of you are sons of the Most High." . . . For it was
necessary at first that nature be exhibited, then after that what was mortal
would be conquered and swallowed up in immortality.12

At about the same time, Clement of Alexandria (about A.D. 150—215) wrote:
"Yea, I say, the Word of God became a man so that you might learn from
a man how to become a god."13 Clement
also said that "if one knows himself, he will know God, and knowing God
will become like God. . . . His is beauty, true beauty, for it is God, and that
man becomes a god, since God wills it. So Heraclitus was right when he said,
‘Men are gods, and gods are men.’"14

Still in the second century, Justin
Martyr (about A.D. 100—165)
insisted that in the
beginning men "were made like God, free from suffering and death,"
and that they are thus "deemed worthy of becoming gods and of having
power to become sons of the highest."15 Athanasius, bishop
of Alexandria (about A.D. 296—373),
also stated his belief in deification in terms very similar to those of Lorenzo
Snow: "The Word was made flesh in order that we might be enabled to be
made gods. . . . Just as the Lord, putting on the body, became a man, so also
we men are both deified through his flesh, and henceforth inherit everlasting
life."16 On another occasion Athanasius observed: "He
became man that we might be made divine."17 Finally, Augustine
of Hippo (A.D. 354—430),
the greatest of the early Christian Fathers, said: "But he himself that
justifies also deifies, for by justifying he makes sons of God. ‘For he has
given them power to become the sons of God’ [John 1:12]. If then we have been
made sons of god, we have also been made gods."18

All five of the above writers were
not just orthodox Christians, but also in time became revered as saints. Three
of the five wrote within a hundred years of the period of the apostles, and
all five believed in the doctrine of deification. This doctrine was a part
of historical Christianity until relatively recent times, and it is still
an important doctrine in some Eastern Orthodox churches. One writer states
that a fundamental prin-ciple of orthodoxy in the patristic period was recognizing
"the history of the universe as the history of divinization and salvation."
As a result the early Christian Fathers concluded that "because the Spirit
is truly God, we are truly divinized by the presence of the Spirit."19

The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology contains the following in an article
titled "Deification":

Deification (Greek theosis) is for Orthodoxy the goal of every Christian.
Man, according to the Bible, is ‘made in the image and likeness of God.’.
. . It is possible for man to become like God, to become deified, to become
god by grace. This doctrine is based on many passages of both OT and NT (e.g.
Ps. 82 (81).6; II Peter 1.4), and it is essentially the teaching both of St
Paul, though he tends to use the language of filial adoption (cf. Rom. 8.9—17;
Gal. 4.5—7), and the Fourth Gospel (cf. 17.21—23).

The language of II Peter is taken up by St Irenaeus, in his famous phrase,
‘if the Word has been made man, it is so that men may be made gods’ (Adv.
V, Pref.), and becomes the standard in Greek theology. In the fourth
century St Athanasius repeats Irenaeus almost word for word, and in the fifth
century St Cyril of Alexandria says that we shall become sons ‘by participation’
(Greek methexis). Deification is the central idea in the spirituality
of St Maximus the Confessor, for whom the doctrine is the corollary of the
Incarnation: ‘Deification, briefly, is the encompassing and fulfillment of
all times and ages,’ . . . and St Symeon the New Theologian at the end of
the tenth century writes, ‘He who is God by nature converses with those whom
he has made gods by grace, as a friend converses with his friends, face to
face.’ . . .

Finally, it should be noted that deification does not mean absorption into
God, since the deified creature remains itself and distinct. It is the whole
human being, body and soul, who is transfigured in the Spirit into the likeness
of the divine nature, and deification is the goal of every Christian.20

In short, whether one accepts or rejects the doctrine of the deification of
man, it was clearly a part of mainstream Christian orthodoxy for centuries.
Joseph Smith obviously did not make it up. Instead, Latter-day Saints believe,
it is an eternal truth restored through modern prophets.

Modern Statements

In the LDS view, those who are worthy will receive the
full divine inheritance only through the atonement of Christ and only after
having received a glorious resurrection. Closer to the Latter-day Saint understanding
of the doctrine are the views expressed by C. S. Lewis, whose genuine Christianity
is virtually undisputed: "It is a serious thing to live
in a society of possible
gods and goddesses, to remember that the dullest and most uninteresting person you talk to may one
day be a creature which, if you saw it now, you would be strongly tempted
to worship."21

In a fuller statement of this doctrine of deification,
Lewis explained:

The command Be ye perfect is not idealistic gas. Nor is it a command
to do the impossible. He is going to make us into creatures that can obey
that command. He said (in the Bible) that we were "gods" and He
is going to make good His words. If we let Him—for we can prevent Him,
if we choose—He will make the feeblest and filthiest of us into a god
or goddess, dazzling, radiant, immortal creature, pulsating all through with
such energy and joy and wisdom and love as we cannot now imagine, a bright
stainless mirror which reflects back to God perfectly (though, of course,
on a smaller scale) His own boundless power and delight and goodness. The
process will be long and in parts very painful; but that is what we are in
for. Nothing less. He meant what He said.22

God and Christ are the objects of
LDS worship. Even though Mormons believe in the ultimate deification of man, nothing in LDS
literature speaks of worshipping any being other than the Father and the Son.
Latter-day Saints believe in "one God" in the sense that they love
and serve one Godhead, each member of which possesses all of the attributes
of godhood.

Since the scriptures teach that those who gain eternal
life will look like God, receive the inheritance of God, receive the glory
of God, be one with God, sit upon the throne of God, and exercise the power
and rule of God, then surely it cannot be un-Christian to conclude with C.
S. Lewis and others that such beings as these can be called gods, as long as we remember that
this use of the term gods does not in any way reduce or limit the sovereignty of God
our Father. That is how the early Christians used the term; it is how C. S.
Lewis used the term; and it is how Latter-day Saints use the term and understand
the doctrine.



9.   See Joseph Smith,
comp., Lectures on Faith (Salt Lake City:
Deseret Book, 1985), 5:3; and Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 346—48.

President Snow often referred to this couplet as having been revealed to him
by inspiration during the Nauvoo period of the church. See, for example, Deseret
3 November 1894, 610;
Deseret Weekly, 8 October 1898, 513; Deseret News, 15 June 1901, 177;
and Journal History of the Church, Historical Department, Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, 20 July 1901, 4.

Irenaeus, Against Heresies, bk. 5, preface.

Ibid., 4.38 (4); compare 4.11 (2): "But man receives progression and
increase towards God. For as God is always the same, so also man, when found
in God, shall always progress towards God."

Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation to the Greeks, 1.

Clement of Alexandria, The Instructor, 3.1. See his Stromateis, 23.

Justin Martyr, Dialogue with Trypho, 124.

Athanasius, Against the Aryans,
1.39, 3.34.

Athanasius, On the Incarnation, 54.

Augustine, On the Psalms, 50.2. Augustine
insists that such individuals are gods by grace rather than by nature, but
they are gods nevertheless.

Richard P. McBrien, Catholicism, 2 vols. (Minneapolis:
Winston Press, 1980), 1:146, 156, emphasis in original.

Symeon Lash, "Deification," in The Westminster Dictionary of
Christian Theology
, ed. Alan Richardson
and John Bowden (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983), 147—48.

C. S. Lewis, The Weight of Glory and Other Addresses, rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan, Collier Books, 1980),

Lewis, Mere Christianity, 174—75. For
a more recent example of the doctrine of deification in modern, non-LDS Christianity,
see M. Scott Peck, The Road Less Traveled (New York: Simon
and Schuster, 1978), 269—70: "For no matter how much we may like
to pussyfoot around it, all of us who postulate a loving God and really think
about it eventually come to a single terrifying idea: God wants us to become
Himself (or Herself or Itself). We are growing toward godhood."